I went to Croatia between April 24th and 27th 2019. I had two days for Aoudad, one for Balkan Chamois and one morning for Mouflon.

Herd of 28 Aoudad at Mosor

I flew from Basel into Split, where I was welcomed by Stjepan „Miro“ Olujić.

Miro is responsible for the introduction of Aoudad in Croatia. He broad this North African species to Mosor 30 years ago, where he holds the hunting concession for the area (12.000 ha). Naturally he is very knowledgeable about wildlife in his area and very open to guide not only hunters, but also mammal watchers. I stayed in an apartment in Gata, a village at the base of Mosor. From the building you are able to see Aoudad in the mountains (highest point at ca. 1300 m asl). It takes you 3/4 h from the airport to reach Gata.

Maybe as a wolf lover you won’t become Miro’s best buddy. If you dare to broach the subject, be ready to hear endless stories of his losses in the hundred thousands and preyed on sheep and goats. If this doesn’t convince you of the evilness of wolves, Miro is ready to show you a photo on his smart phone taken in Bosnia of a partially eaten up refugee. Otherwise Miro is good company willing to get up at any time, spend many kilometres behind the steering wheel of his 4×4 and scan the horizon with binoculars for endless hours. www.dalmacijalov.com/deu/jagdrevier.html mail: stjepan.olujic@gmail.com

According to Miro the best time to see Aoudad at Mosor is January, February and March. Later in the year the animals move uphill, and it is difficult to follow. There are about 100 Aoudad in the area. Because the population is hunted the animals are rather shy. Expect to see them at a distance of 400 metres. If you are lucky – like I was twice – 250 metres is the closest you can get. If you want to find out more about Aoudad, you are welcome to check out the Aoudad chapter of my caprinae world.

Aoudad male

Aoudad female

Young of the year

In the western part of Mosor you can also find Mouflon. According to Miro in recent years the population has suffered a lot from wolves. Mouflon seem not to be adapted to their presence – a point I have heard several time in the last years. We saw only two animals.

A bit further down the coast to the east is Biokovo. It is the name of a mountain range as well as a nature park. This range is really impressive as it rises from sea level vertically to as high as almost 1800 m asl. The nearest town is Makarska. A little up the hill is a gate with an office, and they charge you a reasonable sum for entering the park. In the lower parts there is pine and deciduous forests. Further up you reach a hilly plateau with the typical Karst formations the area is famous for. There could be Chamois and Mouflon all over the place, but probably your best bet is at the edge of the plateau, where the animals find refuge from predators in the steeper sections of their habitat. Hunting season is between October 1st and January 31st. During the non-hunting season animals should be more approachable.

If the Chamois is really pure Balkan Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica) is not quite clear. Miro is convinced the animals are pure, nevertheless I found one source (Damm and Franco, 2014), stating that the animals in the area are „possibly Alpine/Balkan hybrids“.

On the way to the highest point – Sveti Jure (1762 m) – there are several parking areas or side tracks, where you can park your car. You can also hike or cycle the area. For more info see the park’s website: https://pp-biokovo.hr/en/20/home

Monday, April 22nd

There are just a few dirt roads along the base of Mosor. We drive back and forth and scan the slopes above us. During the course of the afternoon we see several groups, consisting of between 2 and 28 individuals. Many young of the year are already born. Yearling are also numerous. One female with a young lets us approach up to 250 metres. Great! Once a European Hare (Lepus europaeus) crosses the road.

Tuesday, April 23rd

The weather has changed. There is rain. And the wind is so strong that I am not able to use my tele lens efficiently. A few shots I get:

Young male amidst spring flowers: In spring it can already be tricky to reach the realms of Audoad. But the season definitely also has its advantages – from a photographers point of view.

So we change plans drive back to Split, where Miro shows me a relief of a Mouflon hunting scene in the Cathedral of Saint Domnius in Split.

The sources I have at hand say that Mouflon were brought to Corsica and Sardinia 6000 BC, and the first mentioning of mouflon on the European mainland dates back to 1566. So the dipiction of a Mouflon in the cathedral could be a hind that Mouflon reached the Split area much earlier. (I have contacted an archeologist to find out the date of the relief in the church. I will report that later.)

Mouflon hunting scene in the Cathedral of Saint Domnius in Split.

In the afternoon we are back on site. The weather is not really better, but we find one Aoudad herd that seems to try to escape the bad weather and moves downhill. I evaluate the direction of travel, sneak around a ridge, hide under a tree and wait for the herd to show up again. The plan works, and I get some decent photos. 

Aoudad on the ridge.

Aoudad feeding on leaves. 

Wednesday, April 24th

It’s about an hours drive to Biokovo. At Makarska the road winds up almost endlessly. We then approach different sites along the stretch and scan the hills and cliffs – almost without success. Miro is quite astonished to have a hard time to find the animals. In general it seems to be easy to find at least Chamois, but today we are not so lucky and have to wait until the evening. We then observe one female, 650 metres away. But that’s o.k. for a start, I guess I have to come again.

Chamois habitat at Biokovo. Makarska below.

Balkan Chamois on lookout – 650 metres away

Balkan Chamois on lookout – close up

Thursday, April 25th

We have three hours in the morning to look for Mouflon in the western section of Mosor. Again, it could have been better, but at least we see two young rams. The younger one is almost black, a colour variation, which I have never seen before. The cemetry at Dubrava (43°29’53.3″N 16°38’32.8″E) seems to be the best place to get an overview of the Mouflon habitat. – We call it a day and go having breakfast. 

Mouflon habitat in forest fire area

Mouflon habitat dominated by Karst and Junipers

Young Mouflon ram

Very dark young Mouflon ram

trip species list

European Hare (Lepus europaeus)

Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia)

Balkan Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica)

Mouflon (Ovis aries musimon)

Literature Cited

Damm, Gerhard R. and Franco, Nicolás, 2014: The CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World – CIC International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, Budakeszi, Hungary in cooperation with Rowland Ward Publications RSA (Pty) Ltd., Johannesburg, South Africa.